I am very sorry to hear that you are having such significant bone pain! Fortunately, it sounds like your primary care doctor
has already gotten to the bottom of the cause of this, as osteomalacia from vitamin D deficiency is very common and definitely the most common cause of your symptoms. If you are still having symptoms, however, after starting treatment, it is probably time to make a followup appointment with your doctor to see if anything else needs to be done.
In the case of vitamin D - related osteomalacia, often the bone pain does take several weeks to start to improve. In particular, getting vitamin D levels up to normal if you had a severe deficiency may take several months. Therefore, it is entirely possible that your doctor will just encourage you to continue with the treatment for a while longer and see if symptoms gradually improve over time.
On the other hand, if you already been taking the supplements for a while with no improvement, then your doctor may want to perform additional testing, such as measuring vitamin D levels in your blood or getting x-rays or bone density studies to evaluate your bone health a bit more closely.