Neonatologist are pediatricians
that, in addition to completing regular pediatrics training, have subsequently undergone several additional years of specialized training in the treatment of premature babies.
Almost by definition, all premature babies are cared for by neonatologists. Neonatologists work in neonatal intensive care units, which are specialized areas of hospitals where all the staff are skilled in taking care of the special problems that premature babies may have. Therefore if your premature child is admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, they will be cared for a by a neonatologist.
In most hospitals, if you are experiencing premature labor or if there are other concerns that you might end up having a premature birth, one of the hospital's neonatologists will come by to talk with you before the delivery. The point of this consultation is to answer any questions you might have about how the neonatal intensive care unit runs and also to talk you through the potential complications that a premature baby might have and how those complications will be treated. The idea of this consultation is to prepare you for what will happen after the birth and alleviate any doubts or fears you might have.