There is no recommendation for routine eye examination. Therefore, to answer your question, if you are asymptomatic and feeling fine -- you do not regularly need to get your eyes checked. If you are having any problems with your vision or your eyes that prompted this question - -then please see your primary care doctor
or an eye doctor
There is no screening for your eyes that is needed for otherwise healthy people. An ophthalmologist, or eye doctor, only sees people who have specific concerns. For example, people with diabetes or taking specific medications require annual check ups to ensure the eyes are not deteriorating.
If you are concerned, you may want to visit an optometrist
(not an ophthalmologist). An optometrist is not a doctor, but someone who specializes in vision. They can be found at many eyeglass stores and in most malls. They can help you check your vision to make sure there are no major problems. While an optometrist cannot check the parts of the eye that a trained ophthalmologist can -- they can do a generalized "once over." Again, this is not necessarily required -- but something you could do if you are concerned. They can help determine when/if you need glasses.